Titanium alloy and titanium rod/titanium plate has high strength and low density, good mechanical properties, good toughness and corrosion resistance. In addition, titanium alloy process performance is poor, cutting difficult, in hot processing, it is very easy to absorb impurities such as hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen and carbon. There are poor wear resistance, complex production process. Industrial production of titanium began in 1948. The needs of the development of aviation industry make[TJC STEEL] the titanium industry develop at an average annual growth rate of about 8%. At present, the annual output of titanium alloy processing materials in the world has reached more than 40,000 tons, nearly 30 kinds of titanium alloy. The most widely used titanium alloys are Ti-6Al-4V(TC4),Ti-5Al-2.5Sn(TA7) and industrial pure titanium (GRADE 1, GRADE 2 and GRADE 3).
Titanium alloy is mainly used to make aircraft engine compressor parts, followed by rockets, missiles and high-speed aircraft structural parts. By the mid-1960s, titanium and its alloys had been used in general industry to make electrodes for electrolysis industry, condensers for power stations, heaters for oil refining and seawater desalination, and pollution control devices. Titanium and its alloys have become a kind of corrosion resistant structural materials. In addition, it is also used to produce hydrogen storage materials and shape memory alloys. Titanium alloy is a new important [TJC STEEL]structural material used in aerospace industry. Its specific gravity, strength and service temperature are between aluminum and steel, but it has high specific strength and excellent seawater corrosion resistance and ultra-low temperature performance. The amount of titanium alloy in the aero-engine generally accounts for 20% to 30% of the total weight of the structure. It is mainly used in the manufacture of compressor components, such as forged titanium fans, compressor discs and blades, cast titanium compressor casing, intermediary casing, bearing housing, etc. Spacecraft mainly use titanium alloy high specific strength, corrosion resistance and low temperature performance to manufacture a variety of pressure vessels, fuel tanks, fasteners, instrument straps, frames and rocket housing. Man-made earth satellite, [TJC STEEL]lunar module, manned spacecraft and space shuttle also use titanium plate welding pieces.
Titanium metal has excellent corrosion resistance and mechanical properties, is widely used in many departments. Especially in chemical applications, titanium can replace stainless steel as a corrosion resistant material, which has a very important significance in extending the service life of equipment, reducing costs, preventing pollution and improving productivity. In recent years, the scope of titanium used in chemical [TJC STEEL]industry in China is constantly expanding, the amount of titanium is increasing year by year, titanium has become one of the main anti-corrosion materials in chemical equipment. Titanium, as a kind of corrosion-resistant structural material used in chemical equipment, has become an ideal material in chemical equipment.
Chlor-alkali industry is an important basic raw material industry, its production and development have a great impact on the national economy. This is because titanium has better corrosion resistance to chloride ions than commonly used stainless steel and other non-ferrous metals. At present, titanium is widely used in the chlor-alkali industry to manufacture metal anode electrolytic cell, ion membrane electrolytic cell, wet chlorine cooler, refined brine preheater, dechlorination tower, chlorine cooling washing tower and so on. In the past, non-metallic materials (such as graphite and polyvinyl chloride) were mostly used for the main parts of these equipment. Due to the unsatisfactory[TJC STEEL] mechanical properties, thermal stability and processing performance of non-metallic materials, the equipment was bulky, consuming large energy and having short service life, and affected product quality and polluted the environment. Therefore, since the 1970s, metal anode and ion membrane electrolytes have been used to replace graphite electrolytes, and titanium wet chlorine cooler has been used to replace graphite cooler, and good results have been achieved.
For example: the application of titanium wet chlorine cooler. Salt electrolysis production of caustic soda is to produce a large amount of high temperature wet chlorine gas, the temperature is generally 75~95℃, need to be cooled and dried before use. The production of chlorine gas from salt electrolysis in China has affected the output and quality of chlorine gas in the past because of unreasonable cooling process or corrosion of cooling equipment, and seriously polluted the environment. Titanium [TJC STEEL]coolers resistant to high temperature wet chlorine corrosion were put into production, which changed the production face of chlorine in chlor-alkali industry. Titanium is very resistant to corrosion in the environment of high temperature and wet chlorine. The corrosion rate of titanium in chlorine water at room temperature is 0.000565mm/a. In chlorine water at 80℃, the corrosion rate of titanium is 0.00431mm/a. In 95% wet chlorine, the corrosion rate of titanium at room temperature is 0.00096mm/a. Many chlor-alkali coolers, often made of titanium wet chlorine, have been in use for nearly 20 years and are still in good condition.
Soda Ash Industry
Soda ash is one of the most basic chemical raw materials, which is directly related to the development of national economy. In the process of soda production, the gas medium is mostly NH3 and CO2, and the liquid medium is mostly NaCl, NH4Cl, NH4HCO3 and Cl- solution with high concentration. The main equipment [TJC STEEL]such as carbonation tower tubs made of carbon steel and cast iron for carbonation reaction, hot mother liquor cooler, cooler and crystallizing outer cooler are not corrosion resistant and have serious corrosion leakage. Service life is not more than three years. From 1975 to 1977, Tianjin Alkali Plant and Dalian Chemical Industry Company set up factories and carried out demonstration work of titanium application. The cooling pipe of carbide tower 63×2mm, titanium plate heat exchanger, titanium external cooler, titanium pump, ROTOR of CO2 turbine compressor, Ti-6Al-4V alloy impeller and so on had good application effect. This for the whole industry with titanium technology transformation and the new three annual output of 600 thousand [TJC STEEL]tons of pure alkali plant played a model role.
For example: the ammonia condenser at the top of distillation tower in a pure alkali plant uses pure titanium tube instead of cast iron tube. Ammonia condenser is the equipment for condense ammonia gas from distillation tower in the process of soda production. It is composed of two cast iron cooling boxes, each box has a diameter of 2.5m and a height of 1.2m. The original box contains 214 cast iron tubes with a diameter of 63×6×2986mm, a total of 428. The tube is anticorrosive with thermosetting phenolic varnish inside and outside. The medium outside the tube is NH3, CO2, H2O vapor, and the temperature is about 95℃. NH4Cl mother liquor is carried out in the tube for heat exchange with the medium outside the tube. Under this condition, the cast iron pipe corroded seriously, some of the pipe corroded and perforated in one year, and corroded and damaged seriously in two years, so it stopped using. In order to solve the serious corrosion problem of cast iron pipes in ammonia condenser, all cast iron pipes were replaced with TA2 titanium pipes, with specifications of φ 60×2×3010mm. The titanium pipe ends and cast iron plates were [TJC STEEL]sealed with O-type rubber rings. This is the first distillation tower in China's soda industry using pure titanium tube cooling. It has been put into production and used for more than two years. No corrosion phenomenon was found when the pipe was pulled out for macroscopic inspection. It is expected to have a service life of more than 20 years, 10 times longer than the cast iron pipe. Due to the corrosion resistance of titanium tubes, the heat transfer efficiency remains good (cast iron tubes have good heat transfer efficiency in the early stage, poor in the middle stage and failure in the late stage during a three-year overhaul). The NH4Cl mother liquor in tubes is preheated to recover heat and improves the temperature of mother liquor entering the distillation tower, which can save a lot of steam and bring obvious economic [TJC STEEL]benefits.
1. Good Corrosion Resistance- The corrosion [TJC STEEL]resistance of titanium alloy is much better than that of stainless steel when working in humid atmosphere and seawater medium. Resistance to pitting corrosion, acid corrosion, stress corrosion is particularly strong; Excellent corrosion resistance to alkali, chloride, chlorine organic articles, nitric acid, sulfuric acid and so on. But titanium has poor corrosion resistance to reducing oxygen and chromite medium.
2. Low Temperature Performance is Good- Titanium alloy can keep its mechanical properties at low temperature and ultra low temperature. Titanium alloys with good low temperature performance and very low clearance elements, [TJC STEEL]such as TA7, can maintain certain plasticity at -253℃. Therefore, titanium alloy is also an important low temperature structural material.
3. Chemical Activity- Titanium has high chemical activity, and has strong chemical reaction with O, N, H, CO, CO2, water vapor and ammonia in the atmosphere. When the carbon content is greater than 0.2%, hard TiC will be formed in titanium alloy. When the temperature is higher, TiN hard surface layer can be formed by the interaction with N. Above 600℃, titanium absorbs oxygen to form a hard layer with high hardness. When hydrogen content increases, embrittlement layer will also be formed. [TJC STEEL]The depth of hard brittle surface produced by gas absorption can reach 0.1 ~ 0.15mm, and the hardening degree is 20% ~ 30%. Titanium chemical affinity is also large, easy to friction surface adhesion phenomenon.
4. Small Thermal Conductivity Elasticity- The thermal conductivity of titanium λ=15.24W/ (m.K) is about 1/4 of nickel, 1/5 of iron, 1/14 of aluminum, and the thermal conductivity of various titanium alloys is about 50% lower than that of titanium. The elastic modulus of titanium alloy is about 1/2 of steel, so its rigidity is poor, easy deformation, should not make slender rod and thin wall parts, cutting the processing surface of the[TJC STEEL] springback is very large, about 2 ~ 3 times of stainless steel, resulting in severe friction, adhesion, adhesion wear of the tool surface.
1. Specific Gravity: the specific gravity of titanium alloy is about 4.55, which is usually 57% of stainless steel. It is easy to identify from[TJC STEEL] the feel.
2. Color: the natural color of titanium alloy is gray, color texture is different from stainless steel, aluminum alloy. Because titanium alloy is more difficult to polish, coloring, so usually the surface of titanium alloy products is mechanical polishing or grinding, only a few high-grade titanium alloy products local mirror light. [TJC STEEL]And mechanical polishing and ground surface color is titanium alloy unique gray or dark gray.
3. Strength: the strength of titanium alloy is [TJC STEEL]higher than the general stainless steel and aluminum alloy, can reach 2 times of stainless steel.
Introduction of TP347H Large Diameter Thick Wall φ 711*88mm Seamless Tube and N08367 Large Diameter Thin Wall Thickness φ 711mm*11mm Seamless Tube- TJC STEEL.
TP347H large diameter thick wall φ 711mm*88mm seamless pipe is mainly used in hydrorefining unit projects and ten million tons of refining and chemical integration projects, with the production capacity of a single unit greatly improved, the diameter and wall thickness of stainless steel seamless pipe demand also increased. Its process route is round steel, hot perforation, cold rolling, heat treatment,[TJC STEEL] inspection and test. The TP347H φ 711mm*88mm pipe produced by the above process can meet the needs of various devices, especially high-pressure hydrogenation units.
N08367 large diameter thin wall φ 711*11mm seamless pipe is mainly used in the field of nuclear power, with the trend of nuclear power, seawater cooling system seawater pipe due to long-term contact with seawater, more prone to local spot corrosion perforation, cracking phenomenon, N08367 as corrosion resistant seawater medium material, Its high strength and corrosion resistance make it the best alternative to conventional duplex steel and expensive nickel-based alloys. Its process route[TJC STEEL] is round steel, re-inspection, peeling, perforation. Inspection, grinding, pickling, inspection, lubrication drying, cold rolling/drawing, degreasing, heat treatment, straightening, pickling passivation, finished product inspection, identification, packaging, shipping. The N08367 φ 711mm*11mm pipe produced by the above process meets the requirements of the standard and technical conditions, and the comprehensive evaluation of corrosion resistance is higher than the standard requirements.
In the process of stainless steel seamless tube processing, stainless steel tube pickling passivation work is very important. Only do a good job in pickling[TJC STEEL] passivation can ensure its excellent characteristics.
Stainless steel seamless tube pickling passivation use organic solvent and moisturizing emulsion to clean the bottom pressure fluid mechanics transport welded tube surface, to remove oil, vegetable grease, dust, lubricating fluid and similar organic compounds, but can not remove rust, oxide, etc.. On the surface of the steel, so it is only used as an auxiliary chemical water treatment of stainless steel seamless pipe for corrosion resistance production although it can make the surface layer to do a certain level of cleaning and not smooth, but the steel anchoring line is shallow, it is very easy to environmental[TJC STEEL] pollution spiral welded pipe accumulation natural environment. Different ways of derusting methods and ways will cause certain key harm to stainless steel seamless tube, harm many characteristics and elements. In the whole process of cleaning, the regulations strictly follow certain standards and methods to ensure excellent expression of use value in the application.
From manufacturing to sewage and organic waste gas acquisition system software, stainless steel seamless pipe pickling passivation production line is an important link have obvious erosion. Therefore, the selection of anticorrosive coatings is immediately associated with the normal application of machinery and equipment, production workshop wood floors, trenches, sewage, organic waste gas, environmental protection [TJC STEEL]acquisition system software and so on.
Therefore, in pickling passivation stainless steel seamless tube, should pay attention to this key point, in order to ensure its excellent characteristics.
Forging is one of the two components of forging (forging and stamping), which is a processing method that makes use of forging machinery to exert pressure on metal billets and produce plastic deformation to obtain forgings with certain mechanical properties, certain shape and size. Through forging can eliminate the defects such as loose cast state produced in the smelting process of metal, optimize the microstructure structure, at the same time because of the preservation of a complete metal streamline, the mechanical properties of the forging is generally better than the same material castings. [TJC STEEL]Forgings are mostly used for the important parts with high load and severe working conditions in the relevant machinery, except for the simple plate, profile or welding parts that can be rolled.
Mainly used in automobiles, general machinery and so on
Wuxi turbine blade maximum impact force 35,500 tons of screw press
The initial recrystallization temperature of steel is about 727℃, but 800℃ is generally used as the dividing line, higher than 800℃ is hot forging; Between 300 and 800℃ is called warm forging or semi-hot forging, forging at room temperature is called cold forging.
Forgings used in most industries are hot forging. Warm forging and cold forging are mainly used in forging parts of automobiles and [TJC STEEL]general machinery. Warm forging and cold forging can effectively save material.
As mentioned above, according to the forging temperature, it can be divided into hot forging, warm forging and cold forging.
According to the forming mechanism, forging can be divided into free forging, die forging, grinding ring and special forging.
1, free forging. It refers to the processing method of forging parts with simple universal tools, or directly applying external force to the blank between the upper and lower anvils of forging equipment, so that the blank can be deformed and the required geometric shape and internal quality can be obtained. The forging produced by free forging method is called free forging. Free forging is based on the [TJC STEEL]production of small number of forgings, forging hammer, hydraulic press and other forging equipment to form the blank processing, obtain qualified forgings. The basic processes of free forging include upsetting, drawing, punching, cutting, bending, twisting, dislocation and forging. Free forging is all hot forging.
2, die forging. Die forging is divided into open die forging and closed die forging. The metal blank is deformed under pressure in the forging die chamber of a certain shape to obtain the forging. Die forging is generally used to produce small weight and large batch parts.
Die forging can be divided into hot die forging, warm forging and cold forging. Warm forging and cold forging are the future [TJC STEEL]development direction of die forging and represent the level of forging technology.
According to the material, die forging can also be divided into black metal die forging, non-ferrous metal die forging and powder products forming. As the name implies, is that the materials are carbon steel and other ferrous metals, copper and aluminum and other non-ferrous metals and powder metallurgy materials.
Extrusion should be attributed [TJC STEEL]to die forging, can be divided into heavy metal extrusion and light metal extrusion.
Closed die forging and closed upsetting forging are two advanced techniques of die forging. It is possible to finish complex forgings with one or more steps. Because there is no flying edge, the forgings force area is reduced, the required load is reduced. However, it should be noted that the blank can not be completely limited, so it is necessary to strictly control the volume of the blank, control the relative position of the forging die and measure the forgings, and try to reduce the wear of the forging die.
3, grinding ring. Grinding ring refers to the production of ring parts of different diameters through special equipment[TJC STEEL] grinding ring machine, also used to produce car wheel hub, train wheels and other wheel parts.
4, special forging. Special forging includes roll forging, cross wedge rolling, radial forging, liquid die forging and other forging methods, which are more suitable for the production of some special shape parts.
For example, roll forging can be used as an effective preforming process to greatly reduce the subsequent forming pressure; Cross wedge rolling can produce steel balls, drive shafts and other parts; Radial forging can produce large gun barrel, step shaft and other forgings.
According to the motion mode of forging die, forging can be divided into swing forging, swing forging, roll forging, cross wedge rolling, ring rolling and cross rolling. Rotary forging, rotary forging and ring forging[TJC STEEL] can also be processed by precision forging. In order to improve the utilization rate of materials, roll forging and cross rolling can be used as the prior process of slender materials. Rotary forging, like free forging, is also partially formed. Its advantage is that compared with the forging size, the forging force can also be formed under the condition of small. Including free forging, the way of forging and processing the materials from the mold surface near to the free surface extension, therefore, it is difficult to guarantee the accuracy, so will the movement direction of the forging die and spin blacksmith sequence with computer control, a lower forging force are available on complex shape, high precision products, such as the production of many varieties, large size of the turbine blade forgings.
The die movement and degree of freedom of forging equipment are inconsistent. According to the characteristics of deformation limitation of bottom dead point, forging equipment can be divided into the following four forms:
1, limited forging force form: oil pressure direct drive slider hydraulic press.
2. Quasi-stroke limit: hydraulic press driven by crank and connecting rod mechanism.
3, stroke limit mode: crank, connecting rod and wedge mechanism to drive the slider mechanical press.
4. Energy limit: Screw and friction press with screw mechanism.
In order to obtain high accuracy, care should be taken to prevent overload at the bottom dead point, control speed and mold position. Because these will have an impact on forging tolerance, shape accuracy and die life. [TJC STEEL] In addition, in order to maintain accuracy, attention should also be paid to adjusting the slideway gap, ensure stiffness, adjust the bottom dead point and use of auxiliary transmission device and other measures.
There are vertical and horizontal movement of the slider (used for slender forging, lubrication cooling and high-speed production of parts forging), the use of compensation device can increase the movement of other [TJC STEEL]directions. The required forging force, process, material utilization, yield, dimensional tolerance and lubrication cooling methods are also factors that affect the level of automation.
The forging materials are mainly carbon steel and alloy steel, followed by aluminum, magnesium, copper, titanium and their alloys. The original state of the material is bar, ingot, metal powder and liquid metal. The ratio of the cross-sectional area of a metal before and after deformation is called the forging ratio. Correct selection of forging ratio, reasonable heating temperature and holding time, reasonable initial forging temperature and final forging temperature, reasonable amount [TJC STEEL]of deformation and deformation speed have great influence on improving product quality and reducing cost.
General small and medium forgings are round or square bars as billets. The bars have uniform grain structure and good mechanical properties, accurate shape and size, good surface quality, convenient for mass production. As long as the heating temperature and deformation conditions are controlled reasonably, good forgings can be forged without large forging deformation.
Ingot is only used for large forgings. The ingot is an as-cast structure with large columnar crystals and loose centers. Therefore, the columnar crystals must be broken into fine grains through large plastic[TJC STEEL] deformation, and loose compaction can obtain excellent metal structure and mechanical properties.
Powder forging can be made from pre - made powder metallurgy preforms after pressing and firing under hot state by die forging without flapping. Forgings powder is close to the density of ordinary die forgings, with good mechanical properties and high precision, which can reduce subsequent cutting. Powder forgings with uniform internal structure and no segregation can be used to manufacture small gears and other workpiece. However, the price of powder is much higher than that of ordinary [TJC STEEL]bar, so its application in production is limited.
The desired shape and properties of die forgings can be obtained by applying static pressure to the liquid metal pouring in the die chamber to make it solidify, crystallize, flow, plastic deformation and form under the action of pressure. Liquid metal die forging is a forming method between die casting and die forging, especially suitable for complex thin-walled parts which are difficult to be formed by ordinary die forging.
Forging materials in addition to the usual materials, such as various composition of carbon steel and alloy steel, followed by [TJC STEEL]aluminum, magnesium, copper, titanium and its alloys, high temperature iron base alloy, nickel base superalloy, cobalt-based superalloy deformation of the alloy also USES forging or rolling way, only the alloy due to its plastic zone is relatively narrow, so the forging difficulty will be relatively large, Different materials heating temperature, open forging temperature and final forging temperature have strict requirements.
1. Aircraft forgings
2, diesel engine forgings
4. Weapon forgings
5, mine forgings
6, nuclear power forgings
7, petrochemical forgings
The Process Flow
Different forging methods have different processes, among which the hot die forging process is the longest, the general [TJC STEEL]order is: forging blank blanking; Forging billet heating; Roll forging billet preparation; Die forging; Trimming; Punching; Correction; Intermediate inspection, inspection forgings size and surface defects; Heat treatment of forgings to eliminate forging stress and improve metal cutting performance; Cleaning, mainly to remove the surface oxide skin; Correction; Inspection, general forgings to go through the appearance and hardness inspection, important forgings also through chemical composition analysis, mechanical properties, residual stress and other tests and non-destructive testing.
Characteristics of Forgings
Compared with castings, the microstructure and mechanical properties of metal can be improved after forging. Casting[TJC STEEL] organization after forging method of thermal deformation due to metal deformation and recrystallization, make original bulky dendrite and columnar grain to grain is fine and uniform axial recrystallization organization, make the ingot in the original segregation, porosity, porosity, slag compaction and welded, such as its organization become more closely, plasticity and mechanical properties of the metal.
The mechanical properties of castings are lower than those of forgings of the same material. In addition, forging processing can ensure the continuity of the metal fiber organization, so that the fiber organization of the forgings and the shape of the forgings remain consistent, the metal streamline is complete, can ensure that the parts have good mechanical properties and long service life. The forgings produced by precision die forging, cold extrusion, warm extrusion and other processes are incomparable to castings
Forgings are objects in which [TJC STEEL]metal is subjected to pressure and plastic deformation to form the desired shape or the appropriate compression force. This force is typically achieved by the use of a hammer or pressure. The forging process builds fine grain structures and improves the physical properties of the metal. In the practical use of parts, a correct design can make the particle flow in the direction of the main pressure. Casting is a metal molding object obtained by a variety of casting methods, that is, the smelted liquid metal, with pouring, injection, inhalation or other casting methods into the pre-prepared casting, after cooling by falling sand, cleaning and post-processing, obtained with a certain shape, size and performance of the object.
"Giant heavy duty forging operation equipment" has been successfully developed and accepted by experts, filling the gap in the field of large forging manipulator technology equipment in China.
This project belongs to the[TJC STEEL] national 863 Program advanced manufacturing subject, undertaken by China First Heavy Machinery Co., LTD. Through hard work, it has successfully developed the first 4000KNM forging manipulator in China, and has completely independent intellectual property rights. The 4000KNM forging manipulator has been put into production of large forgings after a successful thermal test, and has completed the precision forging of 11 types of more than 30 kinds of forgings.
In the field of large forging manipulator technology, China has been monopolized by foreign countries for a long time, [TJC STEEL]and is in urgent need of large heavy duty forging equipment with independent intellectual property rights. The successful development of 4000KNM forging manipulator will greatly improve the manufacturing quality and environmental protection of large forging products in China, and can significantly reduce the cost and shorten the cycle. It is an important symbol of the technical transformation and upgrading of large forging capacity in China's large casting and forging industry, and will play an important role in nuclear power, shipbuilding, aerospace and other fields in the future.
Risk factors and main reasons of forging production
I. In forging production, traumatic accidents are prone to occur, which can be divided into three kinds according to their causes:
First, mechanical injury -- [TJC STEEL]directly caused by the machine, tool or workpiece scratch, bruise;
Third, electrical contact injury.
Two, from the point of view of safety and technical labor protection, the characteristics of the forging workshop are:
1. Forging production is carried out in the state of hot metal (such as low carbon steel forging temperature range between 1250~750℃), because of a lot of manual labor, a little careless may occur burns.
2. The heating furnace in the forging shop and the hot ingot, blanks and forgings constantly emit large amounts of radiant heat (forgings still have a very high temperature at the end of forging), and the workers are often harmed by thermal radiation.
3. The smoke and dust from the heating furnaces of the forging workshop discharged into the air of the workshop during [TJC STEEL]the combustion process, which not only affects the health, but also reduces the visibility of the workshop (for the heating furnaces burning solid fuel, the situation is more serious), thus may also cause industrial accidents.
4. The equipment used in forging production, such as air hammer, steam hammer, friction press, etc., work out of the impact force. When the equipment is under the impact load, it is easy to be damaged suddenly (such as the sudden break of the piston rod of the forging hammer), and cause serious injury accidents.
Press (such as hydraulic press, crank hot die forging press, flat forging press, fine press) shearing machine, in the work, although the impact is small, but the sudden damage of equipment and other situations also happen, the operator is often caught off guard, may also lead to industrial accidents.
5. Forging equipment in the work of the force is very large, such as crank press, tensile forging press and hydraulic press[TJC STEEL] such forging equipment, their working conditions are more stable, but its working parts of the force is very large, such as China has been manufactured and used 12000T forging hydraulic press. Is the common 100~ 150T press, the force is enough. If the mold is installed or operated incorrectly, most of the force is not on the workpiece, but on the mold, tool, or parts of the equipment itself. In this way, some errors in installation and adjustment or improper[TJC STEEL] tool operation may cause damage to parts and other serious equipment or personal accidents.
6. There is a wide variety of tools and auxiliary tools for forging, especially hand and free forging tools, clamps, etc., which are kept together at the work place. In the work, the replacement of tools is very frequent, and the storage is often messy, which inevitably increases the difficulty of checking these tools. When a certain tool is needed in forging and often can not be found quickly, sometimes the use of similar tools will "make do", which often leads to industrial accidents.
7. Because of the noise and vibration of the equipment in the forging workshop, the working place is extremely noisy, which affects people's hearing and nervous system and distracts their attention, thus increasing the possibility of accidents.
Analysis of Causes of Work-Related Accidents in Forging Workshops
1. Areas requiring [TJC STEEL]protection and equipment lack protection and safety devices.
2. Inadequate or unused protection on equipment.
3. The production equipment itself is defective or defective.
4. Damaged equipment or tools and improper working conditions.
5. The forging die and anvil are defective.
6. Confusion in workplace organization and management.
7. Improper operation of process and auxiliary work of repair.
8. Personal protective equipment such as protective glasses are defective, work clothes and work shoes do not meet working conditions.
9. When several people work together on an assignment, they don't coordinate well with each other.
10. Lack of technical education and safety knowledge leads to incorrect procedures and methods.
Matters Needing Attention
The Forging Process Should be Noted
1. The forging process includes cutting the material to the required size, heating, forging, heat treatment, cleaning and inspection. In small hand forging, all these operations are carried out by a number of hands and hands in a small space. Exposure to the same hazardous environment and [TJC STEEL]occupational hazards; In a large forging shop, the harm varies with the job position.
Working conditions Although working conditions vary with different forging forms, they have certain common characteristics: moderate intensity of physical labor, dry and hot microclimate environment, noise and vibration, air pollution by smoke.
2. Workers are exposed to high temperature air and heat radiation at the same time, resulting in the accumulation of heat in the body. Heat combined with metabolic heat will cause heat dissipation disorders and pathological changes. The amount of perspiration for an 8-hour labor will vary depending on the low-gas environment, physical exertion, and thermal fitness generally between 1.5 and 5 liters or more. In a small forging shop or far from the heat source, the Behard heat stress index is usually 55~95. However, in large forging workshops, the working point near the heating furnace or drop hammer machine may be as high as 150~190. Salt deficiency and heat cramps. [TJC STEEL] In the cold season, exposure to microclimate changes may promote adaptation to some extent, but rapid and too frequent changes may pose health hazards.
Air pollution: The air in the workplace may contain soot, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide, or acrolein, depending on the type of furnace fuel and impurities, combustion efficiency, airflow and ventilation.
Noise and vibration: The TYPE forging hammer will inevitably produce low frequency noise and vibration, but may also have certain high frequency components, and its sound pressure level is between 95 and 115 db. Exposure of workers to forging vibrations may cause temperamental and functional disorders that reduce work ability and affect safety.
The Level of Analysis
China's forging industry is developed on the basis of introducing, digesting and absorbing foreign technology. After years of [TJC STEEL]technological development and transformation, the technological level of leading enterprises in the industry has been greatly improved, including process design, forging technology, heat treatment technology, machining technology, product testing and other aspects.
(1) Process design
Advanced manufacturers generally use computer simulation technology, computer aided process design and virtual technology to improve the process design level and product manufacturing capacity. DATAFOR, GEMARC/AUTOFORGE, DEFORM, LARSTRAN/SHAPE and THERMOCAL were introduced and applied to realize the process control of computer design and hot working.
(2) Forging technology
Most of the hydraulic presses of 40MN and above are equipped with 100-400t. M main forging manipulator and 20-40t. M auxiliary manipulator. A considerable number of manipulators are controlled by computer to realize the comprehensive control of forging process, so that the forging accuracy can be controlled within ±3mm.
(3) Heat treatment technology
The key point is to improve product quality, improve heat treatment efficiency, save energy and protect environment. Such as the use of computer control heating furnace and heat treatment furnace heating process, control burner to achieve automatic regulation of combustion, furnace temperature adjustment, automatic ignition and heating parameters management; Waste heat utilization, heat treatment furnace equipped with regenerative combustion chamber, etc. The polymer quenching oil [TJC STEEL]tank with low pollution capacity and effective cooling control is adopted. Various water-based quenching media gradually replace the traditional quenching oil.
(4) Machining technology
The proportion of CNC machine tools in the industry has gradually increased, some enterprises in the industry have processing centers, according to different types of products equipped with proprietary processing machinery, such as five-axis processing centers, blade processing machines, roller mills, roller lathes and so on.
(5) Quality assurance measures
Some domestic enterprises have been equipped with the latest testing instruments and testing technology, the use of computer control data processing of modern automatic ultrasonic testing system, using a variety of special automatic ultrasonic testing system, to complete the certification of various [TJC STEEL]quality systems. The key production technology of high speed and heavy duty gear forgings has been continuously conquered and industrialization has been realized on this basis. On the basis of introducing advanced production technology and key equipment from abroad, China has been able to design and manufacture production equipment for high-speed and heavy-duty gear forgings by itself, which has approached the international advanced level. The improvement of technology and equipment level has strongly promoted the development of domestic forging industry.
Forging production is one of the main processing methods to provide the blank of mechanical parts in the machinery manufacturing industry. Through forging, not only can get the shape of mechanical parts, but also can improve the internal structure of metal, improve the mechanical and physical properties of metal. Generally, the important mechanical parts with high stress and high requirements are made by forging production method. Such as turbine generator shaft, rotor, impeller, blade, protection ring, large hydraulic press column, high pressure cylinder, rolling mill roll, internal [TJC STEEL]combustion engine crankshaft, connecting rod, gear, bearing, as well as national defense industry artillery and other important parts, are produced by forging. 
Therefore, forging production is widely used in metallurgy, mining, automobile, tractor, harvesting machinery, petroleum, chemical industry, aviation, aerospace, weapons and other industrial sectors, is in daily life, forging production also has an important position.
In a sense, the annual output of forgings, the proportion of die forgings in the total output of forgings, the size and ownership [TJC STEEL]of forging equipment and other indicators, to a certain extent, reflect the industrial level of a country.
Tellurium copper is a tellurium bronze material, tellurium and copper alloy, tellurium copper containing 0.4-0.7% tellurium has good machining performance; Copper telluride containing 50% tellurium and 50% copper is used as an intermediate alloy. American ASTM standard C14500, is the United States according to its industrial development requirements in the 1960s successfully developed a high conductivity free cutting copper alloy material, to fill the gap of copper alloy precision processing materials. Tellurium copper[TJC STEEL] alloy material has both good free cutting performance and excellent electrical and thermal conductivity, as well as corrosion resistance and electric ablation resistance. It has good cold and hot processing performance, and can be forged, cast, extruded and drawn, and molded by punching. Products can be processed into plate, sheet, bar, wire, pipe and other profiles and a variety of profiles.
Properties Classification Of Tellurium Copper Alloys
(1) high conductivity tellurium copper base alloy
High conductivity tellurium copper alloys are usually denoted by DT. Tellurium copper alloy and silver copper have excellent electrical and thermal conductivity, in addition to corrosion resistance, excellent arc performance. Tellurium copper alloy materials of excellent comprehensive performance meet the European Union and our country in recent years, respectively in the about banning the use of certain hazardous substances in electrical and electronic equipment directive and the electronic information product pollution control management measures "such as stipulated in the law banned [TJC STEEL]in electronic electrical equipment used in the newly introduced contain lead, mercury, hexavalent chromium, polybrominated benzene ether and polybrominated biphenyl and other harmful substances Customs requirements. Tellurium copper, however, has its own advantages: it has good hot and cold working performance, and its chip performance is better than silver copper, and can even replace lead brass. The main excellent properties are introduced: 1) it has high conductivity. Tellurium copper alloy is very high compared with copper, than the same performance of red copper is more than 10%-13%, and more than silver copper 10%-15%, such tellurium copper alloy conductivity 94% to 98%; 2) With high thermal conductivity. 22% more than pure silver, 28% more than red copper; 3) Good electric arc resistance. Under the condition of high conductivity, the strength of tellurium alloy can be improved by adjusting the processing conditions, so as to obtain high strength and high conductivity tellurium alloy. DT tellurium copper alloy material with its excellent performance, is widely used in manufacturing electronics, home appliances, transportation, electrical parts, in the field of high conductivity, high thermal conductivity and other fields has a great role, in the future development can even be used to replace silver copper, in many industries have a great [TJC STEEL]space for development, has a commercial prospect.
(2) High Strength Magnesium Telluride Copper Base Alloy
The code name of high strength magnesium tellurium copper alloy is generally expressed by MDT. This kind of alloy is a kind of high performance copper alloy with high conductivity, excellent arc resistance and good mechanical properties. It is widely used in the relevant parts of high-speed railway network. This kind of product has the following characteristics: 1) good physical performance, good collocation between each other; [TJC STEEL] 2) Excellent electric arc resistance. This kind of alloy is mainly concentrated in German enterprises, and is widely used in connectors, commutators and other electrical industries. And our country is mainly in the development test stage, China railway Institute and so on have applied for relevant patents. In other countries, a small number of such alloys are produced, mainly in developed countries.
(3) Free Cutting Phosphorus Tellurium Copper Base Alloy
The designation of high strength magnesium tellurium copper alloy is generally indicated by PDT. This kind of alloy is widely used in chemical industry, machinery, welding and other manufacturing industries by virtue of its excellent cutting performance, electric arc resistance, corrosion resistance and conductivity, and high productivity [TJC STEEL]of manufacturing parts, low cost performance. And because of its good cutting performance, it can be used to make a variety of cutting device cutting nozzle, welding head, battery electrode and other aspects, and this kind of alloy non-toxic can also be used to make life supplies, such as utensils, etc..
C14500 tellurium copper alloy is a new alloy material with 0.40-0.70% tellurium and 0.004-0.012% phosphorus in copper. The bar made of it has excellent cutting performance. It can be used for high-speed cutting on the automatic lathe, and the cutting is not filamentous. It has been widely used in Europe, America, Japan and other [TJC STEEL]developed countries, mainly used for: high conductivity, high conductivity, corrosion resistant precision electronic and electrical components, advanced mechanical and electrical parts, casting and thread cutting parts, plumbing fittings, electrical contact parts, automobile parts, welding and cutting advanced nozzle, motor and switch parts, etc. Can be made into round bar, hexagonal bar, special-shaped bar external supply.
High-conductivity tellurium copper alloys used in electrical contact materials are mostly produced by companies in the United States, Europe, Japan and South Korea. Through the relevant analysis of the shoe copper alloy market, we can clearly recognize that tellurium copper alloy has superior performance, its wide application prospect and potential market has been widely recognized. But at the same time, the market [TJC STEEL]feedback is high processing costs, the main alloy component tellurium market is high and the material is strategic, so only a part of the high precision products used in tellurium. The development of tellurium copper alloy rod has just started in China, luoyang, Sichuan, Shenyang, Guangdong, Zhejiang and other places have started trial production, market potential is great.
Alloy product testing program
(1) Casting Process Parameters
In order to explore the casting process and find out the excellent process parameters, two different crystallizers with copper inner sleeve and copper and graphite inner sleeve were used in the industrial test, and two kinds of water pressure and casting speed were used to compare the performance of the ingot, so as to determine the best [TJC STEEL]process parameters.
In addition, in the test process, in order to reduce the cost and minimize the accumulation of materials, we first get smelting experience in the medium frequency furnace, and then use the power frequency induction furnace for production. In the trial production of the power frequency induction furnace, we use the way of half furnace melting and single casting.
(2) Extrusion And Drawing Process Parameters
The mechanical properties of tellurium copper alloy rod is the second difficulty in the research and development work. The way to solve this problem is to optimize the combination of extrusion and drawing technology, in order to meet the performance requirements without annealing, considering the reasonable combination [TJC STEEL]of performance requirements and cost. In order to improve the surface quality of the product, water seal extrusion is used when extrusion, and the ingot cast by iron mold must be turned and milling before extrusion. In order to explore and optimize the extrusion process, two extrusion schemes are formulated, respectively extrude A ф 31mm, ф 35mm bar blank, and then stretch, the mechanical properties of the finished products are tested. The extruded products should be pickled before stretching, and the elongation coefficient of each stretch time should be calculated respectively to make the processing rate of each pass more uniform. [TJC STEEL]Material, hardness, required mold and equipment performance should be considered in the design of drawing passes to ensure that each pass can be successfully completed.
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